gland is known as the master gland, because it is responsible for the secretion of hormones that ultimately effect all actions
of the body. The pituitary gland is about the size of a grape and hangs under the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. It
is divided into two parts, called lobes, the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe, which are both responsible for the production,
storage and secretion of different hormones.
pituitary produces two hormones, oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which are made in the hypothalamus, and are stored
and released in this lobe. Oxytocin controls milk production in the mammary glands and induces contractions in the uterus
during labor, while ADH controls the reabsorbtion of water by the kidneys.
pituitary manufactures, stores, and secretes seven hormones.
is also responsible for the stimulation of milk production in the mammary glands after birth.
hormone (ACTH) is responsible for the stimulation of the adrenal glands above the kidneys, which results in the regulation
of glucose production and sodium and potassium balance in the body.
hormone (MSH) is responsible for causing the synthesis if melanin pigment in the skin by stimulating melanocytes, while thyroid
stimulating hormone (TSH) is responsible for the thyroid’s release of thyroid hormones.
hormone and luteinizing hormone are responsible for stimulation of the sex organs (the testes and ovaries) in both males and
growth hormone (GH) controls the overall growth of all the body’s systems, especially the skeletal and muscular systems.
release of most of these hormones is controlled using negative feedback mechanisms, where the hypothalamus detects changes
in the body through the peripheral nervous system, and sensing the change needs to be fixed, sends a message to the pituitary
to release the hormone that fixes the problem.
and Prolactin are hormones that use a positive feedback system, in which these hormones are used to reinforce the change until
the desired effect is produced (i.e. birth).