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The Bone

Home
Table of Contents
Introduction
The Lungs
The Trachea
The Testes
The Submaxillary Gland
The Liver
The Stomach and Duodenum
The Blood
The Arteries and Veins
The Adipose Tissue
The Skin
The Pituitary Gland
The Pancreas
The Thyroid
The Kidney
The Spinal Cord
The Cerebellum
The Elastic Cartilage
The Bone
The Smooth Muscle
The Striated Muscle
Conclusion
Bibliography

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The bone serves as the underlying support structure of the human body. It is made up of an intricate lattice of collagen fibers, and mineral salts of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Within this lattice, bone cells develop, creating the final structure of the bone.

 

The bones serve five purposes in the human body. The first is support, in which the bones anchor all the other internal structures, and support the weight of the body.

 

The second is protection of soft tissues, like the brain, the spinal cord, and the heart and lungs.

 

The third is movement. In combination with skeletal muscles, tendons, and cartilage, the flexible structure of the skeleton allows for the movement of the limbs, and the flexibility of the body as a whole.

 

The fourth function is storage. The bones store essential deposits of fat, as well as minerals like calcium and phosphorous. These stores of calcium are important because they allow for the transmission of nerve signals, the contraction of muscles, and the clotting of blood.

 

The final function of bone is blood cell formation, which happens in the marrow cavities of certain bones.

 

There are two types of bone. The first, which is compact bone, is dense and smooth, and makes up most of the long bones in the arms and legs. Spongy bone is made up of tiny plates of bone connected together over an open space. It makes up the short bones found in the wrist, and flat bones, such as those that make up the ribs.

 

The bone is made of tiny tubular canals, called osteons, in which a central canal runs up the length of the bone, carrying blood vessels and nerves. Around the central canal are lamellae, concentric circles of bone cells, or osteocytes. The osteocytes are supplied with the nutrients from the central canal through smaller canals called canaliculi, which run through the bony matrix.

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THE WONDERS OF THE HUMAN BODY!